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Paradoxical diurnal cortisol changes in neonates suggesting preservation of foetal adrenal rhythms.

Paradoxical diurnal cortisol changes in neonates suggesting preservation of foetal adrenal rhythms.
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Kinoshita M, Iwata S, Okamura H, Saikusa M, Hara N, Urata C, Araki Y, Iwata O,


Kinoshita M, Iwata S, Okamura H, Saikusa M, Hara N, Urata C, Araki Y, Iwata O, (click to view)

Kinoshita M, Iwata S, Okamura H, Saikusa M, Hara N, Urata C, Araki Y, Iwata O,

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Scientific reports 2016 Oct 186() 35553 doi 10.1038/srep35553
Abstract

Studies suggested the presence of foetal adrenal rhythms of cortisol, which are entrained in antiphase to maternal rhythms. In contrast, neonates are thought to have no adrenal rhythm until 2-3 months after birth. To test the hypothesis that a foetal-type adrenal rhythm is preserved after birth, saliva samples were collected from 65 preterm/term infants during hospital stay (30-40 weeks corrected age) at 10:00 and 19:00 h. Cortisol levels were assessed for their diurnal difference and dependence on antenatal/postnatal clinical variables. Cortisol levels were lower during periods 15-28 days and >28 days than ≤5 days of life. Lower cortisol was associated with pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), gestational age <28 weeks, and mechanical ventilation after birth. Higher cortisol was associated with vaginal delivery and non-invasive ventilation support at saliva collection. PIH and non-invasive mechanical ventilation at saliva collection were associated with cortisol levels even after adjustment for postnatal age. Cortisol levels were higher in the evening than in the morning, which was unassociated with gestational and postnatal age. Higher cortisol levels in the evening suggest the preservation of a foetal-type diurnal rhythm. Cortisol levels are associated with intrinsic and extrinsic variables, such as PIH, delivery mode, gestational age, and respiratory conditions.

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