To prevent HIV-1 infections in females, vaccines that elicit antibodies in vaginal secretions are much desired. To induce these antibodies, intravaginal vaccinations are sometimes recommended. However, the benefit of intravaginal vaccination remains a topic of debate, and parallel studies of intravaginal and intramuscular vaccination routes are rarely performed. Here we describe tests of mucosal and systemic antibodies after mouse vaccinations by several routes with HIV-1 envelope protein formulated in adjuvant. Response magnitudes were as follows: intraperitoneal > intramuscular = intravaginal tissue ≥ subcutaneous. We found that the well-accepted and logistically feasible intramuscular immunization was similar to intravaginal tissue immunization for the induction of antibodies in blood and vaginal secretions. Results suggest that a routine comparison of intravaginal and intramuscular immunizations may serve as a beneficial gatekeeper for the development of new intravaginal HIV-1 vaccines.
Parallel Analyses of Systemic and Local Vaccinations with Envelope Formulated in Adjuvant for Induction of HIV-Specific Antibodies in the Vaginal Mucosa.