Parental occupational exposures might be associated with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) in offspring. We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize and synthesize the current literature and to estimate the pooled magnitude of the underlying association(s) between parental occupational exposures and subsequent risk of NDDs.
In the meta-analysis of 20 included studies, significant associations were found between parental occupational exposure to pesticides or solvents and the risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in offspring. Prenatal occupational exposure to pesticides was significantly associated with motor development or cognition disorders in children. Furthermore, some evidence showed that metals might have a role in the development of autism spectrum disorders. Further studies need to identify the level of parental occupational exposures that can be significantly associated with NDDs. Moreover, utilizing standardized outcome and exposure scales is recommended to incorporate paternal, maternal, and parental as well as both prenatal and postnatal exposure in future studies.

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