Revue neurologique 2016 8 23() pii 10.1016/j.neurol.2016.07.005
Paroxysmal movement disorders comprise both paroxysmal dyskinesia, characterized by attacks of dystonic and/or choreic movements, and episodic ataxia, defined by attacks of cerebellar ataxia. They may be primary (familial or sporadic) or secondary to an underlying cause. They can be classified according to their phenomenology (kinesigenic, non-kinesigenic or exercise-induced) or their genetic cause. The main genes involved in primary paroxysmal movement disorders include PRRT2, PNKD, SLC2A1, ATP1A3, GCH1, PARK2, ADCY5, CACNA1A and KCNA1. Many cases remain genetically undiagnosed, thereby suggesting that additional culprit genes remain to be discovered. The present report is a general overview that aims to help clinicians diagnose and treat patients with paroxysmal movement disorders.