Researchers did this study to provide a theoretical basis for EMM and its modifications, this study introduces a CFD model based on a time-resolved direct numerical simulation. A secondary objective was describing EMM and assessing the role of the M-EMM in preserving the overall fluid dynamics of the sinonasal cavities.

A normal sinonasal CT scan was converted into a geometrical model and used as a reference; 2 anatomies were then created by virtual surgery, mimicking EMM and M-EMM, with the latter sparing the anterior portion of inferior turbinate and medial maxillary sinus wall.

The present study’s analysis shows that EMM induces a massive flow rate increase in the operated side, which becomes less evident in the M-EMM model. EMM generates higher velocity fields in contrast to M-EMMthat reach the maxillary sinus. Velocity and vorticity fluctuations are negligible in the baseline model but become increasingly evident and widespread in the M-EMM and EMM models.

The study concluded that a significant disruption of the nasal fluid dynamics is observed in EMM, while M-EMM minimizes variations and reduces interference with nasal air conditioning.