Rumora L, Hlapčić I, Hulina-Tomašković A, Somborac-Bačura A, Bosnar M, Grdić Rajković M. Pathogen-associated molecular patterns and extracellular Hsp70 interplay in NLRP3 inflammasome activation in monocytic and bronchial epithelial cellular models of COPD exacerbations. During chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations interplay between pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs; e.g. lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA)) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs; e.g. extracellular heat shock protein 70 (eHsp70) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)) might influence patient’s outcome. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome might have a role in dysfunctional immune system in COPD. We hypothesized that LPS, LTA, eHsp70 and their combinations induce NLRP3 inflammasome activation and we aimed to explore this assumption. We used monocytic (monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) and THP-1) and bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE and NCI-H292) to represent systemic and local airway compartments that could be affected in COPD. Bacterial components and eHsp70 stimulated NLRP3 and interleukin (IL)-1β gene expression as well as IL-1β and ATP release from all cells compared to non-treated cells. LDH secretion was induced in cell lines only. eHsp70 had inhibitory (NCI-H292) or stimulatory (NHBE) effects on eATP levels compared to PAMP alone. Regarding NLRP3 inflammasome activation, eHsp70 had mostly antagonistic effects. We demonstrated that bacterial components and eHsp70 activate NLRP3 inflammasome and increase ATP secretion. We suggest that extracellular Hsp70 might modulate immune responses provoked by bacterial infections and affect COPD patients’ outcome during acute exacerbations.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.