Nature reviews. Microbiology 2017 11 07() doi 10.1038/nrmicro.2017.128
Co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the leading cause of death in individuals infected with HIV-1. It has long been known that HIV-1 infection alters the course of M. tuberculosis infection and substantially increases the risk of active tuberculosis (TB). It has also become clear that TB increases levels of HIV-1 replication, propagation and genetic diversity. Therefore, co-infection provides reciprocal advantages to both pathogens. In this Review, we describe the epidemiological associations between the two pathogens, selected interactions of each pathogen with the host and our current understanding of how they affect the pathogenesis of TB and HIV-1/AIDS in individuals with co-infections. We evaluate the mechanisms and consequences of HIV-1 depletion of T cells on immune responses to M. tuberculosis. We also discuss the effect of HIV-1 infection on the control of M. tuberculosis by macrophages through phagocytosis, autophagy and cell death, and we propose models by which dysregulated inflammatory responses drive the pathogenesis of TB and HIV-1/AIDS.