This study had three aims: (1) correlate axial length (AL), age and best-corrected visual acuity in high myopic patients scored on the ATN grading system; (2) determine AL cut-off values to distinguish between pathologic myopia (PM) and severe PM; and (3) identify clinical differences between PM and severe PM.
This is a cross-sectional, non-interventional study. All patients underwent complete ophthalmologic examination, ATN grading and multimodal imaging (colour fundus photography, swept-source OCT, fundus autofluorescence, OCT angiography and fluorescein angiography).
Six hundred forty-four eyes from 345 high myopic patients were included. The eyes were graded on the ATN system and classified as PM (≥ A2) or severe PM (≥ A3, ≥ T3 and/or N2). Significant between-group (PM vs. severe PM) differences (p < 0.05) were observed on the individual ATN components (atrophic [A], tractional [T] and neovascular [N]), age, BCVA and AL. AL was also linearly correlated with the A, T and N components (r = 0.53, p < 0.01; r = 0.24, p < 0.01; r = 0.20, p < 0.01; respectively). ROC curve analysis showed the optimal AL cut-off value to distinguish between PM at 28 mm (AUC ROC curve: 0.813, specificity: 75%, sensitivity: 75%) and severe PM at 29.50 mm (AUC ROC curve: 0.760, specificity: 75%, sensitivity: 70%).
AL is the main variable associated with myopic maculopathy. Due to the clinical differences found between PM and severe PM, there is need to create an objective cut-off point to distinguish these two different entities being the optimal cut-off points for AL 28 mm and 29.5 mm, respectively. These objective AL cut-off values should be taken into account for determining a correct follow-up, ophthalmic management and treatment.

© 2021. The Author(s).