Composite lymphoma (CL) is a very rare clinical entity defined by the presence of two or more different subtypes of lymphoma in the same lymph node. We report a case of CL in a 78-year-old male presenting with leukocytosis and swelling of multiple lymph nodes. A left axillary node biopsy showed atypical lymphocytes in both the interfollicular and follicular areas. Immunohistochemistry revealed that mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) was mainly present in the interfollicular area and follicular lymphoma (FL) was present in the follicular area. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangements confirmed that they were clonally related neoplasms. However, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA was detected in only FL cells, suggesting that MCL and FL had split into two clones in the early steps of pathogenesis. This is the first reported case of CL with EBV-negative B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and EBV-positive B-cell NHL with a clonal relationship. We discuss the developmental processes of these two lymphomas.