Immunity, inflammation and disease 2018 03 15() doi 10.1002/iid3.216
Intracellular reactive oxidant species (ROS) are generated in human airway epithelial cells by the prothrombinase action of Group 1 house dust mite (HDM) allergens and by ligation of viral RNA sensor Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We explored signaling convergence between HDM allergens and TLRs in ROS generation because epithelial cells form the primary barrier against inhaled substances and dictate host responses to allergens and viruses.
ROS formation by Calu-3 human airway cells was studied by measuring dihydrorhodamine 123 oxidation after activation by polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (to activate TLR3), CL097 (to activate TLR7), a natural mixture of HDM allergens, or BzATP.
TLR4 activation was identified as an indispensable response element for all stimuli, operating downstream from myosin motor activation, pannexon gating for ATP release and the endogenous activation of prothrombin. Exogenous prothrombin activation by HDM allergens was prevented by SGUL 1733, a novel inhibitor of the proteolytic activity of Group 1 HDM allergens, which thus prevented TLR4 from being activated at source.
Our data identify for the first time that endogenously-generated prothrombin and TLR4 form a shared effector mechanism essential to intracellular ROS generation activated by a group 1 HDM allergen (itself a prothrombinase) or by ligation of viral RNA-sensing TLRs. These stimuli operate a confluent signaling pathway in which myosin motors, gating of pannexons, and ADAM 10 lead to prothrombin-dependent activation of TLR4 with a recycling activation of pannexons.