Multiple analyses and investigations into the molecular mechanisms behind ABO blood type antigen changes in oncogenesis have been performed. Researchers found that there is a lack of published research correlating the cytological, molecular, and hematological responses of Imatinib therapy in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), regardless of blood group. For a study, investigators characterized the ABO blood group distribution of CML, the clinical spectrum of CML in different blood groups, and the responsiveness of CML patients to treatment based on their ABO and Rh blood types. Clinical characteristics, peripheral smears, and bone marrow aspiration findings all contributed to the diagnosis of all patients in the research. All patients underwent a cytogenetic study and a real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) before treatment began. At the start of treatment, each patient’s blood group and Rh typing were determined. Only 58 of the 100 patients included were female. There were 45% patients with a B+ blood group, 33% with an O+ blood group, 10% with an A+ blood group, 8% with an AB+ blood group, 2% with an A- blood group, 1% with a B- blood group, and 1% with an AB- blood group. The complete cytogenetic response was seen in 43.64% of the O+ research patients, 41.82% of the B+, 10.91% of the A+, 1.82% of the AB+, and 8.62% of the A. (1.82). Abelson-breakpoint cluster region (BCR-ABL)/ratio (%) was undetectable in 40% of O+ patients, 40% of B+ patients, and 20% of A+ patients. There was a complete hematological response (CHR) in approximately 75% of patients and a partial hematological response (PHR) in approximately 25%. Patients with blood types B+ or O+ (41.33%) had a CHR.  It was observed that a maximum number of patients were suffering from symptoms of an abdominal mass (37%), 43.24% of patients with B+ blood group showed an abdominal mass, followed by O+ (35.13%), A+ and AB+ (8.11% each), B − and AB− (2.70% each). Patients with blood types other than B+ and O+ had poorer cytogenetic, molecular, and hematological responses after 6 and 12 months of Imatinib treatment compared to those with B+ and O+.

Source: journals.lww.com/jfmpc/Fulltext/2022/07000/Clinical_spectrum_and_treatment_response_in.9.aspx