Preclinical lung cancer models are essential for a basic understanding of lung cancer biology and its translation into efficient treatment options for affected patients. Lung cancer cell lines and xenografts derived directly from human lung tumors have proven highly valuable in fundamental oncology research and anticancer drug discovery. Both models inherently comprise advantages and caveats that have to be accounted for. Recently, we have enabled reliable in vitro culture techniques from lung cancer biopsies as Patients Lung Derived Tumoroids (PLDTs). This breakthrough provides the possibility of high-throughput drug screening covering the spectrum of lung cancer phenotypes seen clinically. We have adapted and optimized our in vitro three-dimensional model as a preclinical lung cancer model to recapitulate the tumor microenvironment (TME) using matrix reconstitution. Hence, we developed directly PLDTs to screen for chemotherapeutics and radiation treatment. This original model will enable precision medicine to become a reality, allowing a given patient sample to be screened for effective ex vivo therapeutics, aiming at tailoring of treatments specific to that individual. Hence, this tool can enhance clinical outcomes and avoid morbidity due to ineffective therapies.Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.