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PCV13 serotype decrease in Italian adolescents and adults in the post-PCV13 era: Herd protection from children or secular trend?

PCV13 serotype decrease in Italian adolescents and adults in the post-PCV13 era: Herd protection from children or secular trend?
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Nieddu F, Moriondo M, De Vitis E, Ricci S, Indolfi G, Resti M, Vocale C, Landini MP, Sartor A, Azzari C, ,


Nieddu F, Moriondo M, De Vitis E, Ricci S, Indolfi G, Resti M, Vocale C, Landini MP, Sartor A, Azzari C, , (click to view)

Nieddu F, Moriondo M, De Vitis E, Ricci S, Indolfi G, Resti M, Vocale C, Landini MP, Sartor A, Azzari C, ,

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Vaccine 2017 02 1035(11) 1544-1550 pii S0264-410X(17)30144-5
Abstract
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE WORK
In 2010 PCV13 replaced PCV7 in the pediatric vaccination schedule for Italian children. While a strong herd effect was demonstrated for PCV7, a possible herd effect due to PCV13 is still under debate. Our aim was to evaluate differences in the distribution of pneumococcal serotypes between the pre and post-PCV13 eras in unvaccinated Italian adolescents and adults with laboratory-confirmed pneumococcal infection from 3 Italian Regions with a high rate of PCV13 vaccination of children.

PATIENTS AND METHODS
Adolescents and adults admitted with laboratory-confirmed pneumococcal infection in the hospitals of 3 Italian Regions (Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Emilia Romagna, and Tuscany) between April 2006 and June 2016 were included in the study. Diagnosis of pneumococcal infection and serotyping were performed with Real Time PCR directly on normally sterile fluids or on culture isolates.

RESULTS
523 patients with laboratory-confirmed pneumococcal infection were enrolled (Male/Female ratio was 300/223, 1.3; median age 67.1, IQR 53.4-74.9). None of the patients had been vaccinated with any pneumococcal vaccine; 96.4% were serotyped. Overall, the most frequent serotypes were 3 (67/504, 13.3%), 8 (43/504, 8.5%), and 19A (38/504, 7.5%). Serotype distribution differed among age classes and clinical presentations. Overall, PCV13 serotypes accounted for 47.6% of cases: 62.3% in the pre-PCV13 era and 45.0% in the post-PCV13 era; (p=0.005 OR=2.03; CL 95%: 1.2-3.3). Serotype 7F accounted for 12/77 (15.6%) of all serotypes in the pre-PCV13 period and for 12/427 (2.8%) in the post-PCV13 period and was the only serotype significantly contributing to the difference in percentage between pre and post-PCV13 eras.

CONCLUSION
Our study demonstrated a difference in percentage in serotype distribution in adolescents and adults laboratory-confirmed pneumococcal infection between the pre and post-PCV13 eras. This difference is mainly due to the decrease of serotype 7F. Thus, in order to decrease disease burden, adults and in particular the elderly should be offered a specific vaccination program.

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