The aim of the article to summarize recent changes of treatment options in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) with a special emphasis on immune checkpoint inhibition.
The introduction of checkpoint inhibitor (CPI) therapy has led to a paradigm change in advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Dual immune checkpoint inhibition or the combination of CPI and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) was shown to improve survival when compared with the former standard of care sunitinib. Moreover, these novel strategies were shown to enable unprecedented rates of complete and durable responses, particularly with dual checkpoint inhibition. Although the treatment landscape has rapidly evolved, it remains unknown which combination is the best for the individual patient. Pivotal trials have used sunitinib as a comparator but no head to head comparisons have been conducted between novel agents so far. Moreover, no predictive biomarker has been identified yet to bring the best treatment to the individual patient.
The aim of this review is to summarize the findings of CPI-based trials conducted in RCC and to discuss the future of mRCC treatment.