Pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS) is a disorder characterized by the sudden onset of eating restrictions or obsessive-compulsive symptoms, accompanied by acute behavioral deterioration or sensory changes. The clinical characteristics of the disease are not known as the condition is newly recognized. This study aims to explain the clinical characteristics of PANS.

This observational cohort study included a total of 41 patients with suspected PANS. The researchers ascertained the severity of the symptoms and associated impairment with the condition using the PANS scale. The primary outcome of the study was the symptoms associated with PANS.

Out of 41 patients included in the study, 23 (mean age 8.5 years, ten girls, 13 boys) met the PANS diagnostic criteria. Eleven (48%) of PANS-diagnosed patients had a family history of neuropsychiatric or developmental disorders, and 11 (48%) had a family history of autoimmune or inflammatory diseases. The symptoms of PANS among the patients were developmental problems (n=12) and developmental disorder (n=5). The infection was viral in 12(57%) patients and bacterial in 53 (43%) patients.

The research concluded that PANS in children and adolescents resulted in severe, complex, acute-onset neuropsychiatric symptoms with possible infectious triggers and a relapsing-remitting symptom course.