Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is a radiation-free method that is routinely used in adult patients for a diagnostic sampling of gastrointestinal lesions and fluid collections, gastric variceal hemostasis, biliary/pancreatic duct draining, and endo-surgical procedures. The use of EUS in pediatrics is still in its infancy, with few data available. For a study, researchers investigated the use, diagnostic, and therapeutic functions of pediatric EUS, as well as the change of these parameters through time.

From 2009 to 2020, records of patients aged 18 and under at tertiary pediatric care facilities were identified retrospectively. Patient demographics, symptoms, laboratory investigations, EUS indications and treatments, and procedure clinical outcomes were all examined. The Student t-test, Pearson’s chi-square, and Fisher exact tests were used for statistical analysis. 

During the research period, 306 EUS operations were conducted on 279 pediatric patients. There were 287 higher EUS (93.8%) and 19 lower EUS (6.2%). About 229 operations (74.8%) were diagnostic, while 77 were therapeutic (25.2% ). EUS indications included pancreaticobiliary examination and treatment (231, 75.5%), subepithelial or regional lesion (54, 17.8%), celiac plexus block (19, 6.2%), and hemostasis (14, 4.5%). Diagnostic sampling was completed in 52 of these EUS operations, with a diagnostic yield of 96.2%. Technically, 98.7% of therapeutic treatments were effective, and there were no related adverse outcomes. The diagnostic and therapeutic use of EUS in adults has grown considerably, but its significance in children is unclear. The findings in the biggest pediatric EUS trial confirmed the safety and usefulness of diagnostic and therapeutic EUS in children.