The aim is To determine the proportion of ultrasound abnormalities of the urinary system between two groups of children: affected with urinary tract infection (UTI) and unaffected (control). Further, to determine the most common microorganisms causing UTI in those children with urinary tract abnormalities.

A case-control study was carried out in Erbil, Iraq between September and December 2012. Ultrasound examinations were carried out on 64 children affected with UTI and on 64 unaffected with UTI (control) in order to detect differences, in the presence of abnormalities, in the urinary tract between the two groups.

A majority (59.4%) of children affected with UTI had ultrasound abnormalities, compared with 26.6% of the control group (P < 0.001). Escherichia coli was the most common microorganism in both groups, although the difference was not statistically significant. More than one half (75%) of patients with UTI were female, compared with 25% who were male (P < 0.001).

More than one half of the children in the present study who presented with UTI were found to have ultrasound abnormalities. E. coli was the most common causative pathogen for children with or without ultrasound abnormalities.

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