The MeltPro MTB assays for detection of resistance to antituberculosis (TB) drugs perform well in genotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) of clinical samples, but their effectiveness with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues is unknown.
FFPE tissues were obtained from 334 patients with TB. Susceptibility to rifampicin (RIF), isoniazid (INH), and fluoroquinolones was examined using the MeltPro MTB assays, with Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) and/or phenotypic DST (pDST) results as references. Samples with discordant results were analyzed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction-targeted amplicon sequencing (MTA-seq).
With pDST as the reference, the MeltPro MTB assays sensitivity for RIF, INH, levofloxacin (LVX), and moxifloxacin (MXF) was 95.00%, 96.00%, 100%, and 100%, respectively, and the specificity was 95.15%, 95.92%, 94.69%, and 89.92%, respectively. Concordance was 99.08% between the MeltPro MTB and Xpert (κ = 0.956) for RIF and 95.12% (κ = 0.834), 95.93% (κ = 0.880), 95.12% (κ = 0.744), and 90.24% (κ = 0.367) between the MeltPro MTB and pDST for RIF, INH, LVX, and MXF, respectively. MTA-seq confirmed the discordancy between the MeltPro MTB and pDST for 26 (89.66%) of 29 samples.
The MeltPro MTB assays rapidly and efficiently predict Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistance to the main first- and second-line anti-TB drugs in FFPE tissues.

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