There is a scarcity of evidence on current outcomes for pregnant women with sickle cell disease (SCD). For a study, researchers conducted a single-site matched cohort research between 2007 and 2017, comparing 131 pregnancies to women with SCD to a control group of 1.310 pregnancies not affected by SCD. They utilized conditional Poisson regression to determine adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) for perinatal outcomes in singleton pregnancies that reached 24 weeks of gestation. Infants delivered to SCD mothers were more likely to be small for gestational age [aRR 169, 95% CI: 113–248], preterm (aRR 262, 95% CI: 182–378), and need Neonatal Unit (NNU) admission (aRR 359, 95% CI: 218–590). Pregnant women with SCD had a greater risk of pre-eclampsia/eclampsia (aRR 353, 95% CI: 210–624), were more likely to have induction of labor (aRR 250, 95% CI: 182–176), and were more likely to have a cesarean delivery (aRR 144, 95% CI 118–176). 

The risk of bad outcomes was greatest in pregnancies with hemoglobin SS (HbSS) (n=80) in a genotype-based study. There was no convincing evidence that hemoglobin SC (HbSC) pregnancies (n=46) were more likely to result in preterm birth, cesarean delivery, or NNU hospitalization. In HbSC pregnancies, pre-eclampsia/eclampsia was more common. Despite advancements in the management of pregnant women with SCD, there was still an elevated risk of severe perinatal outcomes.