This study aimed to evaluate perinatal outcomes in women with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss.
 Retrospective cohort study of singleton and nonanomalous gestations at ≥ 20 weeks who delivered at our academic institution. The exposed group was defined as women with a history of ≥ 2 consecutive spontaneous abortions (SABs) at < 12 weeks. These women were compared with women with a history of ≤ 1 SAB at < 12 weeks. The primary outcome was preterm birth (PTB) at < 37 weeks. Secondary outcomes included gestational age at delivery, gestational diabetes, small for gestational age birth weight, hypertensive diseases of pregnancy, fetal demise, cesarean delivery, and a composite of neonatal complications (5-minute Apgar score < 5, perinatal death, and NICU admission). Multivariable logistic regression was performed to adjust for confounders.
 Of 17,670 women included, 235 (1.3%) had a history of ≥ 2 consecutive SABs. Compared with women with a history of ≤ 1 SAB, women with ≥ 2 consecutive SABs were not more likely to have a PTB (19.6 vs. 14.0%,  = 0.01, adjusted odds ratios (AOR): 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.62-1.33). However, they were more likely to deliver at an earlier mean gestational age (37.8 ± 3.4 vs. 38.6 ± 2.9 weeks,  < 0.01) and to have gestational diabetes (12.3 vs. 6.6%,  < 0.01, AOR: 1.69, 95% CI: 1.10-2.59). Other outcomes were similar between the two groups.
 A history of ≥ 2 consecutive SABs was not associated with an increased incidence of PTB but may be associated with gestational diabetes in a subsequent pregnancy.
· This was a retrospective cohort study.. · Women with a history of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) were studied.. · RPL was associated with an increase in preterm birth..

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