Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), a crucial regulator of vascular homeostasis, is actively involved in vascular dysfunction during aging. PVAT releases various adipocytokines, chemokines and growth factors. In an endocrine and paracrine manner PVAT-derived factors regulate vascular signalling and inflammation modulating functions of adjacent layers of the vasculature. Pathophysiological conditions such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, vascular injury and aging can cause PVAT dysfunction, leading to vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cell dysfunctions. We and others have suggested that PVAT is involved in the inflammatory response of the vascular wall in diet induced obesity animal models leading to vascular dysfunction due to disappearance of the physiological anticontractile effect. Previous studies confirm a crucial role for pinpointed PVAT inflammation in promoting vascular oxidative stress and inflammation in aging, enhancing the risk for development of cardiovascular disease. In this review, we discuss several studies and mechanisms linking PVAT to age-related vascular diseases. An overview of the suggested roles played by PVAT in different disorders associated with the vasculature such as endothelial dysfunction, neointimal formation, aneurysm, vascular contractility and stiffness will be performed. PVAT may be considered a potential target for therapeutic intervention in age-related vascular disease.
Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier B.V.