Journal of medical microbiology 2017 09 13() doi 10.1099/jmm.0.000581
Nodal may play an important role in the development of cancers. The present study was designed to determine the effects of Nodal induced by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection on the occurrence and development of lung cancer and the underlying mechanisms.
After verification of RSV infection by observation of cytopathic effect and indirect immunofluorescence, real-time PCR, Western blot and methylation assays were used to verify the influence of RSV on Nodal expression. Then, a Nodal overexpressed vector was constructed and the effects of Nodal on the proliferation and apoptosis of bronchial epithelial cells (BECs) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were assayed by flow cytometry and Western blot, respectively. Moreover, Lefty and pSmad2/3 were assayed by Western blot and Cyclin D1, CDK4, c-myc and Bcl-2 induced by Nodal overepression or RSV infection were also assayed by real-time PCR.
The results showed that Nodal over expression and demethylation of the promoter were observed in BECs after RSV infection. Activation of Nodal promoted proliferation, colony formation and EMT and inhibited apoptosis of BECs. Nodal also promoted malignant change by promoting expression of cyclin D1 and related-dependent kinase and inhibiting apoptosis. Besides, RSV infection inhibited Lefty expression and promoted the activation of pSmad2/3. RSV also promoted Cyclin D1, CDK4, c-myc and Bcl-2 expression through the activation of pSmad2/3.
Our data showed that persistence of RSV promoted the proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and expression of oncogenes through Nodal signaling, which may be associated with the occurrence and development of lung cancers.