This study analyzed persistent opioid use in opioid-naïve and nonopioid-naïve patients undergoing hepatectomy for neoplastic disease.
A retrospective review was performed of a prospective database using inclusion criteria of hepatectomy for neoplastic disease from October 2013 to December 2017. Prescription data were collected from the North Carolina Controlled Substance Reporting System. Persistent opioid use was defined as patients who continued filling opioid prescriptions 90 days to 1 year after surgery. Patients who did not receive opioid prescriptions between 12 months and 31 days before surgery were defined as naïve.
The analysis included 75 surgeries on naïve and 58 surgeries on nonnaïve patients. 56% of naïve patients and 79% of nonnaïve patients developed persistent opioid use, respectively (p = .0056). Naïve patients received 2.24 ± 4.30 MMEs/day, while nonnaïve patients received 5.50 ± 5.98 MMEs/day during Postoperative days 90-360 (95% CI, 1.41-5.10; p < .001). Naïve patients with a lower Preoperative ECOG score were more likely to develop persistent opioid use (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.21-0.99; p = .048).
More than half of naïve patients undergoing hepatectomy developed persistent opioid use within the first year, though significantly less than nonnaïve patients. Improved performance status was associated with an increased risk of persistent opioid use in naïve patients.

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