Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most aggressive types of brain tumor in humans. The prognosis for patients with GBM is unfavorable and treatment is largely ineffective, where modern treatment regimens typically increase survival by 15 months. GBM relapse and progression are associated with cancer stem cells (CSCs). The present review provides a critical analysis of the primary reasons underlying the lack of effectiveness of modern CSC management methods. An emphasis is placed on the role of the blood-brain barrier in the development of treatment resistance. The existing methods for increasing the efficiency of antitumor genotoxic therapy are also described, and a strategy for personalized regulation of CSC based on post-genome technologies is suggested. The hypothesis that GBM cells employ a special mechanism for DNA repair based on their interactions with normal stem cells, is presented and the function of the tumor microenvironment in fulfilling the antitumor potential of normal stem cells is explained. Additionally, the mechanisms by which cancer stem cells regulate glioblastoma progression and recurrence are described based on novel biomedical technologies.© 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.