Atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) is a form of allergic eye disease that can have sight threating implications. Prevalence is underestimated due to scarce published data and treatment is expanding as a result of limitations of current strategies. This article aims to provide an up-to-date overview of AKC and summarize current and upcoming management.
The authors provide history, immunopathogenesis, and summary of the clinical manifestations of AKC as well as presenting a review of the evidence in relation to treatment options including mast cell stabilizers, antihistamines, corticosteroids, and immunomodulatory drugs based on clinical trials. Future trends, drug targets, and novel delivery drug systems are also highlighted in this review.
Previously established treatment strategies of AKC had relied on corticosteroids, but the side effects of long-term therapy resulted in the expansion into the use of immunomodulatory drugs such as tacrolimus and ciclosporin. However, these too provide limited success due to the suboptimal structural properties of the current molecules. The ideal molecule should generate maximum permeability across the multi-layered structure of the cornea, be able to be formulated into eye drops for ease of application with minimal dosing and for maximal clinical effect.