This phase 1 study evaluated safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), maximum tolerated dose (MTD), and antitumour activity of regorafenib in paediatric patients with solid tumours.
Patients (aged 6 months to <18 years) with recurrent/refractory solid tumours received oral regorafenib once daily for 3 weeks on/1 week off. The starting dose (60 mg/m) was derived from an adult physiology-based PK model and scaled to children; dose escalation was followed by safety expansion of the MTD cohort. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were evaluated using National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Regorafenib PK was evaluated using a population PK model.
Forty-one patients (median age 13 years) received regorafenib (four cohorts: 60-93 mg/m). Five of 23 evaluable patients experienced dose-limiting toxicities (Grade 4 thrombocytopenia, Grade 3 maculopapular rash, pyrexia, hypertension, and exfoliative dermatitis [each n = 1]). The MTD was defined as 82 mg/m. The most common Grade ≥3 drug-related TEAE was thrombocytopenia (10%). The incidence and severity of hypertension, diarrhoea, fatigue, hypothyroidism, and hand-foot skin reaction were lower than reported in adults. Regorafenib exposure increased with dose, with substantial overlap because of moderate-to-high interpatient variability. One patient with rhabdomyosarcoma experienced an unconfirmed partial response; 15 patients had stable disease, five for >16 weeks.
The recommended phase 2 dose of single-agent regorafenib in paediatric patients with solid malignancies is 82 mg/m. Regorafenib demonstrated acceptable tolerability and preliminary antitumour activity, supporting further investigation in paediatric patients.

Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.