Molecular cancer therapeutics 2017 12 13() pii 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-17-0673
Preclinical data suggest that combining a check point inhibition with immunomodulatory derivative can increase anticancer response. We designed a dose escalation study using a 3+3 design to determine the safety, maximum tolerated dose (MTD) or recommended phase 2 dose (R2PD) and dose limiting toxicities (DLT) of the anti-CTLA-4 antibody ipilimumab (1.5-3mg/kg intravenously every 28 days x 4) and lenalidomide (10-25mg orally daily for 21 of 28 days until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity) in advanced cancers. Total of 36 patients (Hodgkin lymphoma, 7; melanoma, 5; leiomyosarcoma, 4; renal cancer, 3; thyroid cancer, 3; other cancers, 14; median of 3 prior therapies) were enrolled. The MTD has not been reached and ipilimumab 3mg/kg and lenalidomide 25 mg have been declared as R2PD. DLT were grade (G) 3 rash (3 patients) and G3 pancreatitis (1 patient). G3/4 drug related toxicities other than DLT were G3 anemia (5 patients), G3 thromboembolism (2 patients), G3 thrombocytopenia, rash, hypopituitarism, G3 pneumonitis, G3 transaminitis and G4 hypopituitarism (all in 1 patient). Eight patients had tumor shrinkage per immune-related response criteria (-79% to -2%) including a PR (-79% for 7.2+ months) in a refractory Hodgkin lymphoma. Using comprehensive genomic profiling a total mutation burden (mutations/Mb) was evaluated in 17 patients, with one of the patients achieving a PR demonstrated intermediate mutation burden. In conclusion, combination of ipilimumab and lenalidomide is well tolerated and demonstrated preliminary signals of activity in patients with refractory Hodgkin lymphoma and other advanced cancers.