Resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) is a rare dominantly inherited disorder mainly due to variants in the gene leading to decreased end-organ responsiveness to thyroid hormones.
Clinical and molecular characteristics of four patients with RTH are described. Four patients with various phenotypes were studied; two prepubertal boys and two adults (one male and one female). Sequencing analysis of the was performed. All individuals had persistently elevated free thyroxine and/or free triiodothyronine associated with non-suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and all had non-autoimmune goiters of various sizes. In both adults, antithyroid drugs were previously administered without successful suppression of the thyroid hormones. The 27-year-old female had resting tachycardia as the only symptom. The 35-year-old male had a degree of cognitive impairment and was initially diagnosed with atrial fibrillation. The eight-year-old boy was diagnosed with attention deficit disorder and had resting tachycardia. The oldest boy (age nine years) underwent thyroid function tests as a part of the investigation for obesity and learning difficulties. Direct sequencing analysis of the gene showed three previously reported variants: p.His435Leu (c.1304A>T) in the 35-year-old male, p.Pro453Thr (c.1357C>A) in the oldest boy, and p.Arg438Cys (c.1312C>T) variant in the other two patients.
Various phenotypes characterize common variants in the gene, asymptomatic, thyroid hormone deprivation symptoms, or thyroid hormone excess symptoms. RTH should be suspected in both adults and children with elevated thyroid hormones and not suppressed TSH. A prompt molecular diagnosis and genetic counseling could prevent unnecessary tests and inappropriate treatments. HIPPOKRATIA 2019, 23(3): 135-139.

Copyright 2019, Hippokratio General Hospital of Thessaloniki.