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Phosphate imbalance in patients with heart failure.

Phosphate imbalance in patients with heart failure.
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Christopoulou EC, Filippatos TD, Megapanou E, Elisaf MS, Liamis G,


Christopoulou EC, Filippatos TD, Megapanou E, Elisaf MS, Liamis G, (click to view)

Christopoulou EC, Filippatos TD, Megapanou E, Elisaf MS, Liamis G,

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Heart failure reviews 2017 04 22() doi 10.1007/s10741-017-9615-6
Abstract

Patients with heart failure often exhibit electrolyte abnormalities, such as hyponatremia or hypokalemia/hyperkalemia. Although not as common as the other electrolyte disturbances observed in patients with heart failure, phosphate imbalance is also of high importance in this population. The aim of this review is to present the mechanisms of low or high phosphate serum levels in patients with heart failure and its role in the pathogenesis and progression of heart dysfunction. Hypophosphatemia in patients with heart failure may be the result of co-existing electrolyte and acid-base abnormalities, pharmacological treatments, decreased intestinal absorption or secondary to sympathetic nervous system activation and co-morbidities, such as diabetes mellitus or heavy alcohol consumption. Hypophosphatemia can affect multiple organ systems including the cardiovascular system. Depletion of phosphate can lead to ventricular arrhythmias and elimination of ATP synthesis, resulting in reversible myocardial dysfunction. Hyperphosphatemia, observed mainly in patients with chronic kidney failure, is also associated with cardiac hypertrophy, which may worsen cardiac contractility and heart failure. Studies have also shown an association of high-normal serum phosphate levels with vascular and valvular calcification. Therefore, serum phosphate imbalances may exhibit a causal role in the pathogenesis and progression of heart failure.

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