Photophobia in complex regional pain syndrome: visual discomfort is greater on the affected than unaffected side.
In complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), hyperalgesia encompasses uninjured sites on the ipsilateral side of the body and may also include the special senses, as auditory discomfort often is greater on the CRPS-affected side. To determine whether this hemi-lateral hyperalgesia involves the visual system, the discomfort threshold to a light-source that increased in intensity at 100 lux/second from 500 to 3,600 lux was investigated for each eye, and the nasal and temporal half of each visual field, in 33 patients with CRPS and 21 pain-free controls. Recent headache history was reviewed and, in patients with CRPS, sensitivity to mechanical and thermal stimuli was assessed in all four limbs and on each side of the forehead. In addition, the pupils were photographed in dim and bright light. The visual discomfort threshold was lower in patients than controls and was lower on the CRPS-affected than unaffected side (p < .001), indicating photophobia. Visual discomfort was unrelated to pupil diameter. Headache frequency was greater in CRPS patients than controls, and unilateral headaches were more likely to be on the CRPS-affected than contralateral side. Similarly, mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia was greater in the CRPS-affected than contralateral limb and was greater ipsilateral than contralateral to CRPS in the forehead and non-symptomatic limbs. Ipsilateral photophobia was associated with mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in the ipsilateral forehead but not the CRPS-affected limb. Together, these findings suggest that aberrant processing of nociceptive input in the ipsilateral trigeminal-medullary region of the brainstem contributes to visual discomfort in CRPS.