PloS one 2016 12 2111(12) e0168099 doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0168099
Since 1982, HIV-1 epidemics have evolved to different scenarios in terms of transmission routes, subtype distribution and characteristics of transmission clusters. We investigated the evolutionary history of HIV-1 subtype B in south Spain.
PATIENTS & METHODS
We studied all newly diagnosed HIV-1 subtype B patients in East Andalusia during the 2005-2012 period. For the analysis, we used the reverse transcriptase and protease sequences from baseline resistance, and the Trugene® HIV Genotyping kit (Siemens, Barcelona, Spain). Subtyping was done with REGA v3.0. The maximum likelihood trees constructed with RAxML were used to study HIV-1 clustering. Phylogeographic and phylodynamic profiles were studied by Bayesian inference methods with BEAST v1.7.5 and SPREAD v1.0.6.
Of the 493 patients infected with HIV-1 subtype B, 234 grouped into 55 clusters, most of which were small (44 clusters ≤ 5 patients, 31 with 2 patients, 13 with 3). The rest (133/234) were grouped into 11 clusters with ≥ 5 patients, and most (82%, 109/133) were men who have sex with men (MSM) grouped into 8 clusters. The association with clusters was more frequent in Spanish (p = 0.02) men (p< 0.001), MSM (p<0.001) younger than 35 years (p = 0.001) and with a CD4+ T-cell count above 350 cells/ul (p<0.001). We estimated the date of HIV-1 subtype B regional epidemic diversification around 1970 (95% CI: 1965-1987), with an evolutionary rate of 2.4 (95%CI: 1.7-3.1) x 10-3 substitutions/site/year. Most clusters originated in the 1990s in MSMs. We observed exponential subtype B HIV-1 growth in 1980-1990 and 2005-2008. The most significant migration routes for subtype B went from inland cities to seaside locations. CONCLUSIONS
We provide the first data on the phylodynamic and phylogeographic profiles of HIV-1 subtype B in south Spain. Our findings of transmission clustering among MSMs should alert healthcare managers to enhance preventive measures in this risk group in order to prevent future outbreaks.