Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis 2018 03 13() doi 10.5551/jat.42432
Ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) that damage cells and favour cytotoxicity and apoptosis in peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients. Since brief episodes of I-R (ischemic conditioning) protect cells against ischemic harms, we evaluated whether a short-course of supervised treadmill training, characterized by repeated episodes of I-R, makes peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from PAD patients with intermittent claudication more resistant to I-R injuries by reducing oxidative stress and by inducing an adaptative response of unfolded protein response (UPR) and nuclear factor-E2-related factor (Nrf2) pathway expression.
24 PAD patients underwent 21 sessions of treadmill training and a treadmill test as indicator of acute response to I-R.
Maximal and pain free walking distance improved (p＜0.01), whereas LDH leakage and apoptosis of PBMCS decreased (p＜0.01); plasma malondialdehyde and ROS generation in PBMCS declined, while plasma glutathione augmented (p＜0.01). Moreover we demonstrated an up-regulation of UPR and Nrf2 expression in PBMCS (p＜0.01). To understand whether treadmill training may act as a trigger of ischemic conditioning, we examined the effect of repeated episodes of I-R on adaptative response in PBMCS derived from the patients. We showed an up-regulation of UPR and Nrf2 gene expression (p＜0.01), while oxidative stress and cytotoxicity, after an initial increase, declined (p＜0.01). This positive effect on cytotoxicity was reduced after inhibition of UPR and Nrf2 pathways.
Treadmill training in PAD patients through UPR and Nrf2 up-regulation may trigger hypoxic adaptation similar to conditioning, thus modifying cell survival.