American journal of hypertension 2017 05 02() doi 10.1093/ajh/hpx066
African and African American hypertensives tend to retain salt and water, with lower levels of plasma renin and more resistant hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that physiological phenotyping with plasma renin and aldosterone would improve blood pressure control in uncontrolled hypertensives in Africa.
Patients at hypertension clinics in Nigeria, Kenya, and South Africa with a systolic blood pressure >140 mm Hg or diastolic pressure > 90 mm Hg despite treatment were allocated to usual care (UC) vs. physiologically individualized care (PhysRx). Plasma renin activity and aldosterone were measured using ELISA kits. Patients were followed for 1 year; the primary outcome was the percentage of patients achieving blood pressure <140 mm Hg and diastolic <90 mm Hg. RESULTS
Results are presented for the 94/105 participants who completed the study (42 UC, 52 PhysRx). Control of both systolic and diastolic pressures was obtained in 11.1% of UC vs. 50.0% of PhysRx (P = 0.0001). Systolic control was achieved in 13.9% of UC vs. 60.3% of PhysRx (P = 0.0001); diastolic control in 36.1% of UC vs. 67.2% of PhysRx, vs. (P = 0.003). Number of visits and total number of medications were not significantly different between treatment groups, but there were differences across the sites. There were important differences in prescription of amiloride as specified in the PhysRx algorithm.
Physiologically individualized therapy based on renin/aldosterone phenotyping significantly improved blood pressure control in a sample of African patients with uncontrolled hypertension. This approach should be tested in African American and other patients with resistant hypertension. Registered as ISRCTN69440037.