The testicular capsules of different mammalian species exhibit spontaneous motor activity. In addition, contractions can be mediated by neuronal stimulation or exogenous drug administration. However, the physiological role of testicular capsule motor activity is still not well understood. Nevertheless, there is evidence for putative roles in spermatozoa transport from the testis to the caput epididymis, control of interstitial/intratesticular pressure and testicular blood flow. In this review, we have collated information about the agents that regulate testicular capsule motor activity, their receptors and second messengers as well as the impact of altered testicular capsule function on the male reproductive system. Furthermore, we highlight the knowledge gaps in the physiology and pharmacology of the testicular capsule as indicators of future research directions that may lead to a better understanding of the physiological role of testicular capsule motor activity and its importance in male fertility.Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier B.V.