1. Which of the following is a preliminary outcome of the retrospective, multi-center observational study in a cohort of Italian MS patients investigating the impact of disease-modifying treatments on COVID-19 course of disease?a) An association was observed between the use of ocrelizumab and decreased risk of severe infection.
    b) An association was observed between the use of rituximab and decreased risk of severe infection.
    c) A protective effect against severe COVID-19 was observed for treatment with interferon and teriflunomide.
    d) Other factors that had a significant effect on infection severity in this cohort were younger age, female sex, and low-dose steroid use 12 months before symptoms.

The answer is C.  AAN 2021:  MS disease-modifying therapies influence COVID-19 infection severity


  1. In the study for which researchers retrospectively collected demographics, disease-related information, and anti-CD20 treatment history on patients with MS or neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder who had flow cytometry results after infusion of rituximab or ocrelizumab, what percentages of African-American and White patients experienced B-cell repopulation at 6-12 months?a) 29.8% and 6.8%, respectively
    b) 32.0% and 29.8%
    c) 61.0% and 23.0%
    d) 76.2% and 33.3%

The answer is D.   AAN 2021: Race May Affect Response to Anti-CD20 Therapy for MS, NMOSD


  1. Which of the following is NOT a finding of the study for which researchers compared disability accrual in primary and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS, SPMS) in the international MSBase cohort?a) Age at progressive-phase onset was older in PPMS than in SPMS.
    b) Hazard of disability accrual was decreased in SPMS versus PPMS and increased in males.
    c) Patients with PPMS and SPMS reached EDSS ≥ 7 at similar ages.
    d) Wheelchair requirement therefore occurs at similar ages in each phenotype, consistent with convergence toward a partially age-dependent timeline of disability accrual.

The answer is A. AAN 2021: Disability Accrual in Primary Progressive & Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis


  1. In the study for which researchers examined the health services implications of weather anomalies for individuals living with MS, warm weather anomalies were associated with a relative risk of what for emergency department visits?a) 1.03
    b) 1.04
    c) 1.05
    d) 1.06

The answer is B. AAN 2021: Anomalously Warm Weather Tied to More MS Hospital Visits