Tissue cells of the eye are sensitive to oxidative stress leading to oxidative damage and inflammation, which have crucial roles in the pathogenesis of most of the eye diseases. Moreover, factors such as age, angiogenesis, ischemia, genetic predisposition, diabetes, obesity, and smoking affect the onset and progression of ocular anomalies. Major eye diseases are either age-related such as Age-related macular degeneration, cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, dry eye, or inflammatory eye diseases such as blepharitis, conjunctivitis, uveitis and other retinal pathologies, which can cause ocular damage and visual problems through oxidative stress, inflammation pathways. Although there are conventional chemical or surgical treatments, due to their mainly antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, phytotherapeutic preparations and their natural compounds can be applied to prevent or treat eye disease as follows: oral, topical or both. Thus, this study aims to comprehensively evaluate the pre-clinical and clinical studies of the phytotherapeutics and natural compounds used in the prevention and treatment of common serious and painful eye diseases. Moreover, for the first time, nature-derived preparations/supplements commonly used for eye problems also included in this review to present applications of the extracts/compounds in the pharmaceutical field.
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