Scientific reports 2018 04 098(1) 5717 doi 10.1038/s41598-018-24022-w
Plac1 is an X-linked trophoblast gene expressed at high levels in the placenta, but not in adult somatic tissues other than the testis. Plac1 however is re-expressed in several solid tumors and in most human cancer cell lines. To explore the role of Plac1 in cancer progression, Plac1 was reduced by RNA interference in EO771 mammary carcinoma cells. EO771 "knockdown" (KD) resulted in 50% reduction in proliferation in vitro and impaired tumor growth in syngeneic mice; however, tumor growth in SCID mice was equivalent to tumor cells expressing a non-silencing control RNA, suggesting that Plac1 regulated adaptive immunity. Gene expression profiling of Plac1 KD cells indicated reduction in several inflammatory and immune factors, including Cxcl1, Ccl5, Ly6a/Sca-1, Ly6c and Lif. Treatment of mice engrafted with wild-type EO771 cells with a Cxcr2 antagonist impaired tumor growth, reduced myeloid-derived suppressor cells and regulatory T cells, while increasing macrophages, dendritic cells, NK cells and the penetration of CD8+ T cells into the tumor bed. Cxcl1 KD phenocopied the effects of Plac1 KD on tumor growth, and overexpression of Cxcl1 partially rescued Plac1 KD cells. These results reveal that Plac1 modulates a tolerogenic tumor microenvironment in part by modulating the chemokine axis.