Neuroinflammation accompanied by microglial activation triggers multiple cell death after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The secondary injury caused by inflammation may persist for a long time. Recently, platelet C-type lectin-like 2 receptor (CLEC-2) has been shown to regulate inflammation in certain diseases. However, its possible effects on TBI remain poorly understood. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of platelet CLEC-2 in the pathological process of neuroinflammation after TBI. In this study, mice were subjected to sham or controlled cortical impact injury, and arbitrarily received recombinant platelet CLEC-2. In parallel, BV2 cells were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mimic microglial activation after TBI. Primary endothelial cells were also subjected to LPS in order to replicate the inflammatory damage caused by TBI. We used western blot analysis, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and immunostaining to evaluate the role of platelet CLEC-2 in TBI. In conditional knock out platelet CLEC-2 mice, trauma worsened the integrity of the blood brain barrier and amplified the release of inflammatory cytokines. In wild type mice subjected to controlled cortical impact injury, recombinant platelet CLEC-2 administration altered the secretion of inflammatory cytokines, reduced brain edema, and improved neurological function. In vitro, the polarization phenotype of microglia induced by LPS was transformed by recombinant platelet CLEC-2, and this conversion depended on the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Endothelial cell injury by LPS was ameliorated when microglia expressed mostly M2 phenotype markers. In conclusion, platelet CLEC-2 regulates trauma-induced neuroinflammation and restores blood brain barrier integrity.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.