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Pleural epithelioid angiosarcoma with lymphatic differentiation arisen after radiometabolic therapy for thyroid carcinoma: immunohistochemical findings and review of the literature.

Pleural epithelioid angiosarcoma with lymphatic differentiation arisen after radiometabolic therapy for thyroid carcinoma: immunohistochemical findings and review of the literature.
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Cabibi D, Pipitone G, Porcasi R, Ingrao S, Benza I, Porrello C, Cajozzo M, Giannone AG,


Cabibi D, Pipitone G, Porcasi R, Ingrao S, Benza I, Porrello C, Cajozzo M, Giannone AG, (click to view)

Cabibi D, Pipitone G, Porcasi R, Ingrao S, Benza I, Porrello C, Cajozzo M, Giannone AG,

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Diagnostic pathology 2017 08 1512(1) 60 doi 10.1186/s13000-017-0652-1
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Pleural angiosarcoma is a rare tumor that causes diffuse pleural thickening and effusion, mimicking mesothelioma. Immunohistochemistry is needed to highlight endothelial differentiation. We describe the first case of pleural angiosarcoma with lymphatic differentiation following radiometabolic therapy for thyroid carcinoma.

CASE PRESENTATION
A 50-year-old man showed diffuse pleural thickening and effusion. Nine years earlier, he underwent thyroidectomy and radiometabolic therapy for thyroid carcinoma with lymph node metastases. Histologically, the tumor consisted of a solid proliferation of atypical epithelioid cells and anastomosed vascular spaces, lacking of red blood cells and containing Alcian blue positive material. The tumor showed positive immunostaining for Vimentin, CD31, CK7, D2-40, c-MYC, Ki67, focal positivity for PanCK, and negative immunostaining for Factor VIII, CD34, WT1, CK5/6, Calretinin, EMA, HBME-1, CEA, p63, EpCAM, Bcl-2, TTF1 and Thyroglobulin. CD99 showed a granular/paranuclear pattern of positivity. The histological and immunohistochemical features were consistent with "pleural angiosarcoma with lymphatic differentiation, epithelioid variant".

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS
Epithelioid angiosarcoma with lymphatic differentiation is very rare and aggressive. Moreover, the positivity for c-MYC suggests the relationship with radiometabolic therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first case of pleural c-MYC-positive angiosarcoma with lymphatic differentiation reported in the literature and the first one arisen after radiometabolic therapy for thyroid carcinoma.

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