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Point-prevalence survey of healthcare facility-onset healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection in Greek hospitals outside the intensive care unit: The C. DEFINE study.

Point-prevalence survey of healthcare facility-onset healthcare-associated Clostridium difficile infection in Greek hospitals outside the intensive care unit: The C. DEFINE study.
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Skoutelis A, Pefanis A, Tsiodras S, Sipsas NV, Lelekis M, Lazanas MC, Gargalianos P, Dalekos GN, Roilides E, Samonis G, Maltezos E, Hatzigeorgiou D, Lada M, Metallidis S, Stoupis A, Chrysos G, Karnesis L, Symbardi S, Loupa CV, Giamarellou H, Kioumis I, Sambatakou H, Tsianos E, Kotsopoulou M, Georgopali A, Liakou K, Perlorentzou S, Levidiotou S, Giotsa-Toutouza M, Tsorlini-Christoforidou H, Karaiskos I, Kouppari G, Trikka-Graphakos E, Ntrivala MA, Themeli-Digalaki K, Pangalis A, Kachrimanidou M, Martsoukou M, Karapsias S, Panopoulou M, Maraki S, Orfanou A, Petinaki E, Orfanidou M, Baka V, Stylianakis A, Spiliopoulou I, Smilakou S, Zerva L, Vogiatzakis E, Belesiotou E, Gogos CA,


Skoutelis A, Pefanis A, Tsiodras S, Sipsas NV, Lelekis M, Lazanas MC, Gargalianos P, Dalekos GN, Roilides E, Samonis G, Maltezos E, Hatzigeorgiou D, Lada M, Metallidis S, Stoupis A, Chrysos G, Karnesis L, Symbardi S, Loupa CV, Giamarellou H, Kioumis I, Sambatakou H, Tsianos E, Kotsopoulou M, Georgopali A, Liakou K, Perlorentzou S, Levidiotou S, Giotsa-Toutouza M, Tsorlini-Christoforidou H, Karaiskos I, Kouppari G, Trikka-Graphakos E, Ntrivala MA, Themeli-Digalaki K, Pangalis A, Kachrimanidou M, Martsoukou M, Karapsias S, Panopoulou M, Maraki S, Orfanou A, Petinaki E, Orfanidou M, Baka V, Stylianakis A, Spiliopoulou I, Smilakou S, Zerva L, Vogiatzakis E, Belesiotou E, Gogos CA, (click to view)

Skoutelis A, Pefanis A, Tsiodras S, Sipsas NV, Lelekis M, Lazanas MC, Gargalianos P, Dalekos GN, Roilides E, Samonis G, Maltezos E, Hatzigeorgiou D, Lada M, Metallidis S, Stoupis A, Chrysos G, Karnesis L, Symbardi S, Loupa CV, Giamarellou H, Kioumis I, Sambatakou H, Tsianos E, Kotsopoulou M, Georgopali A, Liakou K, Perlorentzou S, Levidiotou S, Giotsa-Toutouza M, Tsorlini-Christoforidou H, Karaiskos I, Kouppari G, Trikka-Graphakos E, Ntrivala MA, Themeli-Digalaki K, Pangalis A, Kachrimanidou M, Martsoukou M, Karapsias S, Panopoulou M, Maraki S, Orfanou A, Petinaki E, Orfanidou M, Baka V, Stylianakis A, Spiliopoulou I, Smilakou S, Zerva L, Vogiatzakis E, Belesiotou E, Gogos CA,

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PloS one 2017 08 1612(8) e0182799 doi 10.1371/journal.pone.0182799
Abstract
BACKGROUND
The correlation of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) with in-hospital morbidity is important in hospital settings where broad-spectrum antimicrobial agents are routinely used, such as in Greece. The C. DEFINE study aimed to assess point-prevalence of CDI in Greece during two study periods in 2013.

METHODS
There were two study periods consisting of a single day in March and another in October 2013. Stool samples from all patients hospitalized outside the ICU aged ≥18 years old with diarrhea on each day in 21 and 25 hospitals, respectively, were tested for CDI. Samples were tested for the presence of glutamate dehydrogenase antigen (GDH) and toxins A/B of C. difficile; samples positive for GDH and negative for toxins were further tested by culture and PCR for the presence of toxin genes. An analysis was performed to identify potential risk factors for CDI among patients with diarrhea.

RESULTS
5,536 and 6,523 patients were screened during the first and second study periods, respectively. The respective point-prevalence of CDI in all patients was 5.6 and 3.9 per 10,000 patient bed-days whereas the proportion of CDI among patients with diarrhea was 17% and 14.3%. Logistic regression analysis revealed that solid tumor malignancy [odds ratio (OR) 2.69, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18-6.15, p = 0.019] and antimicrobial administration (OR 3.61, 95% CI: 1.03-12.76, p = 0.045) were independent risk factors for CDI development. Charlson’s Comorbidity Index (CCI) >6 was also found as a risk factor of marginal statistical significance (OR 2.24, 95% CI: 0.98-5.10). Median time to CDI from hospital admission was shorter with the presence of solid tumor malignancy (3 vs 5 days; p = 0.002) and of CCI >6 (4 vs 6 days, p = 0.009).

CONCLUSIONS
The point-prevalence of CDI in Greek hospitals was consistent among cases of diarrhea over a 6-month period. Major risk factors were antimicrobial use, solid tumor malignancy and a CCI score >6.

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