Intracellular polyamines such as spermine and spermidine are essential to cell growth in normal and especially in cancer cells. However, whether extracellular polyamines affect cancer cell survival is unknown. We therefore examined the actions of extracellular polyamines on breast cancer BT474 cells. Our data showed that spermine, spermidine, and putrescine decreased cell viability by apoptosis. These polyamines also elicited Ca2+ signals, but the latter were unlikely triggered via Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaSR) as BT474 cells have been demonstrated previously to lack CaSR expression. Spermine-elicited Ca2+ response composed of both Ca2+ release and Ca2+ influx. Spermine caused a complete discharge of the cyclopiazonic acid (CPA)-sensitive Ca2+ pool and, expectedly, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The Ca2+ influx pore opened by spermine was Mn2+-impermeable, distinct from the CPA-triggered store-operated Ca2+ channel, which was Mn2+-permeable. Spermine cytotoxic effects were not due to oxidative stress, as spermine did not trigger reactive oxygen species formation. Our results therefore suggest that spermine acted on a putative polyamine receptor in BT474 cells, causing cytotoxicity by Ca2+ overload, Ca2+ store depletion, and ER stress.
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July 29, 2018
Safety and immunogenicity of an alum-adjuvanted whole-virion H7N9 influenza vaccine: a randomized, blinded, clinical trial.
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