Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a multifactorial endocrine and metabolic disorder characterized by androgen excess, oligo-anovulatory infertility, polycystic ovaries in ultrasound examination, insulin resistance, and cardiometabolic disorders, with overweight/obesity and visceral adiposity. This review aims to provide an overview of the clinical characteristics and nutritional therapy of PCOS and obesity.
The authors analyzed the updated and relevant publications found on Pubmed about clinical aspects and nutritional management of PCOS and obesity in studies done in animal and human models.
It is crucial an early detection and intervention in PCOS patients to avoid the more challenging control of the onset of more impaired-health conditions that this pathology causes. It is presented evidence that clearly shows the close interaction among oxidative stress, low-grade inflammation, and PCOS. It is also analyzed the relevance of treating metabolic and nutritional correlations of PCOS with a complete therapeutic strategy that includes individualized medication, diet, and healthy habits.
By an integral approach and treatment that includes not only medications for PCOS symptoms, supplementation of minerals and vitamins to control PCOS complications but an antiinflammatory diet, nutritional education, exercise individualized program, lifestyle changes, it is possible to improve insulin resistance, sustained weight loss, ovulation rates, among other goals for the management of this disease. Further studies are needed to clarify mechanisms, beneficial effects, and doses of supplements and precise medication to determine the best combination of diets and exercise programs according to these patients’ specific requirements.