During influenza infection, hemagglutinins on the viral surface bind to sialic acids on the host cell’s surface. Whilst all hemagglutinins bind sialic acids, human influenza targets terminal α2,6 sialic acids and avian influenza targets α2,3 sialic acids. For interspecies transmission (zoonosis), the hemagglutinin must mutate to adapt to these differences. Here, multivalent gold nanoparticles bearing either α2,6- or α2,3-sialyllactosamine have been developed to interrogate a panel of hemagglutinins from pathogenic human, low pathogenic avian and other species’ influenza. This method exploits the benefits of multivalent glycan presentation compared to monovalent presentation, to increase affinity, and investigate how the multivalency affects selectivity. Using a library-orientated approach, parameters including polymer coating and core diameter were optimised for maximal binding and specificity were probed using galactosylated particles and a panel of biophysical techniques (UV-Vis, dynamic light scattering and biolayer interferometry). The optimized particles were then functionalized with sialyllactosamine and their binding analysed against a panel of hemagglutinins derived from pathogenic influenza strains including low pathogenic avian strains. This showed significant specificity crossover, which is not observed in monovalent formats, with binding of avian hemagglutinins to human sialic acids and vice versa in agreement with alternate assay formats. These results demonstrate that precise multivalent presentation is essential to dissect the interactions of hemagglutinins and may aid the discovery of new tools for disease and zoonosis transmission.
Optogenetic translocation of protons out of penumbral neurons is protective in a rodent model of focal cerebral ischemia.
April 15, 2020
Anxiety, depression, chronic inflammation and aortic stiffness in Crohn’s disease: the brain–gut–vascular axis.
June 11, 2020
Efficient T cell compartment in HIV+ patients receiving orthotopic liver transplant and immunosuppressive therapy.
July 6, 2020
- ACC 2020The American College of Cardiology decided to cancel ACC.20/WCC due to COVID-19, which was scheduled to take place March 28-30 in Chicago. However, ACC.20/WCC Virtual Meeting continues to release cutting edge science and practice changing updates for cardiovascular professionals on demand and free through June 2020.
- ENDO: 2020ENDO 2020 Annual Conference has been canceled due to COVID-19. Here are highlights of emerging data that has still been released. Keep an eye out for ENDO Online 2020, which will take place from June 8 to 22.
- CROI 2020Every year, CROI hosts some of the world's leading experts in HIV research, who come to present exciting new data and drive forward the field of HIV/AIDS research. This year, due to COVID-19, CROI held their meeting virtually.