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Population Pharmacokinetic Model Linking Plasma and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Concentrations of Efavirenz and Its Metabolite, 8-Hydroxy-Efavirenz, in HIV Patients.

Population Pharmacokinetic Model Linking Plasma and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Concentrations of Efavirenz and Its Metabolite, 8-Hydroxy-Efavirenz, in HIV Patients.
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Habtewold A, Aklillu E, Makonnen E, Yimer G, Bertilsson L, Burhenne J, Owen JS,


Habtewold A, Aklillu E, Makonnen E, Yimer G, Bertilsson L, Burhenne J, Owen JS, (click to view)

Habtewold A, Aklillu E, Makonnen E, Yimer G, Bertilsson L, Burhenne J, Owen JS,

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Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy 2017 07 2561(8) pii 10.1128/AAC.00207-17

Abstract

The objectives of this study were to characterize the population pharmacokinetics (PK) of efavirenz (EFV) and 8-hydroxy-efavirenz (8OHEFV) in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and to explore covariates affecting the PK parameters. Fifty-one patients had steady-state 0-to-24-h concentrations of EFV and 8OHEFV in plasma with corresponding concentrations in PBMCs, while 261 patients had one or two sparse concentrations at 16 ± 1 h postdose at weeks 4 and/or 16. The pharmacogenetic markers CYP2B6*6, CYP3A5*3, CYP3A5*6, UGT2B7*2, ABCB1 (3435C→T, 3842A→G), OATP1B1*1B, and OATP1B1*5, the presence of a rifampin-based antituberculosis (anti-TB) regimen, baseline body weight and organ function values, and demographic factors were explored as covariates. EFV concentration data were well described by a two-compartment model with first-order absorption (Ka ) and absorption lag time (Alag) (Ka = 0.2 h(-1); Alag = 0.83 h; central compartment clearance [CLc/F] for CYP2B6*1/*1 = 18 liters/h, for CYP2B6*1/*6 = 14 liters/h, and for CYP2B6*6/*6 = 8.6 liters/h) and PBMCs as a peripheral compartment. EFV transfer from plasma to PBMCs was first order (CLp/F = 32 liters/h), followed by capacity-limited return (Vmax = 4,400 ng/ml/h; Km = 710 ng/ml). Similarly, 8OHEFV displayed a first-order elimination and distribution to PBMCs, with a capacity-limited return to plasma. No covariate relationships resulted in a significant explanation of interindividual variability (IIV) on the estimated PK parameters of EFV and 8OHEFV, except for CYP2B6*6 genotypes, which were consistent with prior evidence. Both EFV and 8OHEFV accumulated to higher concentrations in PBMCs than in plasma and were well described by first-order input and Michaelis-Menten kinetics removal from PBMCs. CYP2B6*6 genotype polymorphisms were associated with decreased EFV and 8OHEFV clearance.

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