Approximately 35% of patients fail to attain ideal initial blood glucose control under metformin monotherapy. The objective of this observational study is to simulate the optimal protocol of metformin according to the different renal function.The population pharmacokinetics of metformin was performed in 125 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Plasma concentrations of metformin were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. A population pharmacokinetic model of metformin was developed using NONMEN (version 7.2, Icon Development Solutions, USA). Monte Carlo simulation was used to simulate the concentration-time profiles for doses of metformin for 1000 times at different stages of renal function.The mean population pharmacokinetic parameters were apparent clearance 53.0 L/h, apparent volume of distribution 438 L, absorption rate constant 1.4 hour and lag-time 0.91 hour. Covariate analyses revealed that estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and bodyweight as individual factors influencing the apparent oral clearance: CL/F = 53.0 × ( bodyweight/75) × (eGFR/102.5)EXP(0.1797). The results of the simulation showed that patients should be prescribed metformin 2550 mg/d (t.i.d.) vs 3000 mg/d (b.i.d.) as the minimum doses for patients with augmented renal clearance.eGFR had a significant impact on metformin pharmacokinetics. Patients administered metformin twice a day require higher total daily doses than those with a regimen of 3 times a day at each stage of kidney function.