Clozapine is a second-generation antipsychotic drug that is considered the most effective treatment for refractory schizophrenia. Several clozapine population pharmacokinetic models have been introduced in the last decades. Thus, a systematic review was performed (i) to compare published pharmacokinetics models and (ii) to summarize and explore identified covariates influencing the clozapine pharmacokinetics models.
A search of publications for population pharmacokinetic analyses of clozapine either in healthy volunteers or patients from inception to April 2019 was conducted in PubMed and SCOPUS databases. Reviews, methodology articles, in vitro and animal studies, and noncompartmental analysis were excluded.
Twelve studies were included in this review. Clozapine pharmacokinetics was described as one-compartment with first-order absorption and elimination in most of the studies. Significant interindividual variations of clozapine pharmacokinetic parameters were found in most of the included studies. Age, sex, smoking status, and cytochrome P450 1A2 were found to be the most common identified covariates affecting these parameters. External validation was only performed in one study to determine the predictive performance of the models.
Large pharmacokinetic variability remains despite the inclusion of several covariates. This can be improved by including other potential factors such as genetic polymorphisms, metabolic factors, and significant drug-drug interactions in a well-designed population pharmacokinetic model in the future, taking into account the incorporation of larger sample size and more stringent sampling strategy. External validation should also be performed to the previously published models to compare their predictive performances.

Copyright © 2020 Orwa Albitar et al.