It is still a big challenge in orthopedics to treat infected bone defects properly using medical metals. The use of three-dimensional (3D) scaffold materials that simultaneously mimic the skeletal hierarchy and induce sustainable osteogenic and antibacterial functions are a promising solution with an increasing appeal. In this study, we first designed a bifunctional fusion peptide (HHC36-RGD, HR) by linking antimicrobial peptide (HHC36) and arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) peptide via 6-aminohexanoic acid. Then the 3D scaffold was fabricated by additive manufacturing, and the strontium titanate nanotube structure (3D-STN) was constructed on its surface. Finally, the HR was anchored to the 3D-STN with the aid of polydopamine (PDA, P), forming the 3D-STN-P-HR scaffold. The results showed that the scaffold exhibited an ordered 3D porous structure, and that the surface was covered by a dense HHC36-RGD layer. Expectedly, the adsorption of PDA effectively slowed down the release of HR. Moreover, the functionalized scaffold had a significant inhibitory effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and its antibacterial rate could reach more than 95%. The results of in vitro cell culture experiments demonstrated that the 3D-STN-P-HR scaffold possessed excellent cytocompatibility and could promote the transcription of osteogenic differentiation-related genes and the expression of related proteins. In conclusion, the functionally modified 3D porous titanium alloy scaffold (3D-STN-P-HR) has a balanced antibacterial and osteogenic function, which bodes well for future potential in the customized functional reconstruction of complex-shaped infected bone defects.
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