The association between Helicobacter pylori and chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is controversial. Therefore, we aimed to directly diagnose H pylori by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in gastric tissue from patients with CSU and to investigate the association between H pylori eradication therapy and CSU remission.
Twenty-seven of 72 patients with CSU who were positive for H pylori stool antigen and PCR in gastric biopsy specimens were randomized to receive either anti-H pylori treatment or placebo.
Patients with H pylori were found to have significantly lower hemoglobin concentrations with microcytic hypochromic anemia and a significantly higher occurrence of dyspepsia symptoms. All H pylori-treated patients (except two) showed significant improvement of the urticaria itching and red wheals after 2 weeks of therapy compared with the placebo group (P < .001). The response rate to treatment was 85.7% (12 patients; 95% confidence interval, 64.3%-100.0%). The two patients who failed to eradicate H pylori had an H pylori strain resistant to amoxicillin.

An association was observed between CSU and presence of H pylori infection in the gastric tissue. Whether this is a causal relationship or not remains to be discovered, but treatment of H pylori can significantly improve the symptoms of CSU.

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