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Positive percentages of urine morphine tests among methadone maintenance treatment clients with HIV/AIDS: a 12-month follow-up study in Guangdong Province, China.

Positive percentages of urine morphine tests among methadone maintenance treatment clients with HIV/AIDS: a 12-month follow-up study in Guangdong Province, China.
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Luo X, Gong X, Zhao P, Zou X, Chen W, Ling L,


Luo X, Gong X, Zhao P, Zou X, Chen W, Ling L, (click to view)

Luo X, Gong X, Zhao P, Zou X, Chen W, Ling L,

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BMJ open 2017 04 277(4) e014237 doi 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-014237

Abstract
OBJECTIVE
We aimed to assess the positive percentages of urine morphine tests and correlates among methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clients with HIV/AIDS in Guangdong, China.

SETTING
Fourteen MMT clinics located in nine cities of Guangdong were chosen as study sites.

PARTICIPANTS
In this study, we reviewed 293 clients with opioid dependence, who were HIV seropositive, 18 years or older, provided informed consent and had at least 10 records of urine morphine tests during the study period.

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES
The positive percentages of urine morphine tests were calculated and underlying predictors were estimated.

RESULTS
The highest positive percentage (95.9%) was observed in the first month. After excluding the highest percentage in the first month, the average positive percentage was 40.9% for month 2 to month 12. Positive percentages of urine morphine tests that were <20%, 20-60% and >80% were 25.4%, 36.1% and 38.5% respectively. Lower percentages of continued heroin use were associated with being young (OR≤30=0.31, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.78; OR31-=0.44, 95% CI 0.20 to 1.00), and financial sources depending on family or friends (OR=0.55, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.93). Higher percentages of continued heroin use were associated with being unemployed (OR=1.99, 95% CI 1.13 to 3.49) and poor MMT attendance (OR<20%=3.60, 95% CI 1.55 to 8.33; OR20%-=2.80, 95% CI 1.48 to 5.33). CONCLUSIONS
High positive percentages of urine morphine tests remain prevalent among MMT clients with HIV/AIDS in Guangdong. The present findings have implications for taking effective measures to facilitate attendance in order to decrease heroin use and ultimately improve the effectiveness among these sub-group MMT clients.

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