Journal of the neurological sciences 2017 09 04381() 321-324 pii 10.1016/j.jns.2017.09.002
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is lytic infection of oligodendrocytes caused by JC virus (JCV). While PML incidence in developing countries has decreased after the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), data in developing countries is scarce and limited to few cohorts. We described the epidemiological and clinical profile of a group of Brazilian HIV infected patients with PML in the cART era. A total of 27 patients were included in the study. The median age at PML onset was 42years (range: 27-67years) and 18 (66.7%) were men. The median CD4+ T cell count at the time of diagnosis was 67cells/mm(3) and the median HIV viral load was 27,000copies/ml. Motor deficits were the most common early manifestations (44%). Seizures occurred in 37% of the patients and 9 (33.3%) had PML associated with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). Mortality was 33% and lower age at PML onset was associated with survival (p: 0.013). Our results are in accordance with previous published series of PML cases. Factors such as genetic background, regional JCV subtype differences, death from other diseases and underdiagnosis may explain the low prevalence of reported PML cases in developing countries.